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X-31A EFM (Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability)

Country of Origin: Germany, USA


The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator aircraft proved unusual among test aircraft in two ways: 1) The airframe was flown far more hours than any other testbed, and 2) it flew two distinct flight programs, the second beginning six years after the first one ended. The program ended in 1995. The second effort -- VECTOR (an acronym for vectoring extremely short takeoff and landing control tailless operation research) -- ended in April 2003.

The EFM was a...

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