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Political and Security Environment

Italy has only been a nation-state since the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed in 1861. Final unification did not occur until 1870. Italy fell under a fascist dictatorship led by Benito Mussolini in the 1920s, ultimately resulting in an ill-fated alliance with Nazi Germany and the country's disastrous defeat in World War II.  

Italy has been a constitutional republic since 1946, when the monarchy was abolished by popular referendum. The current...

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