HM was founded in 1989 by Muhammad Ahsan Dar as the militant wing of the Jamaat-e-Islami political faction and remains one of the largest and oldest militant groups in Jammu and Kashmir. Since 1991, the group has been led by Mohammed Yusuf Shah (also known as Syed Salahuddin or Pir Sahib), who resides in Pakistan. Because indigenous Kashmiris comprise the majority of HM members, Indian attacks against the group and killings of HM leaders have sparked popular protests and renewed local...
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